In my opinion, the most loved and easily recognized and furniture designers of the Mid-Century are Charles and Ray Eames. Together, they had the Midas touch when it came to home furnishings; if the Eames' designed it, it became a classic.
If you aren't lucky enough to own an actual Eames Chair of any variety, how about using their images as decor?
This pillow from Inhabitots (above) features the Eames Rocker (as well as other iconic chairs), which is a personal favorite of mine.
If pillows aren't your thing, feel free to be creative like Etsy seller annacote and print an Eames image onto some cork coasters to complete your Mid-Century Modern room.
LadyLulu printed Eames Chair images and framed them, and shows us how she did it on her blog.
I am an Eames lover myself, and probably went overboard when I embroidered the Rocker and the Plywood in a modern chair quilt I made last year:
(Ten points to whomever sees my embroidery mistake!)
These are only a few examples of how to incorporate your favorite MCM furniture pieces into your home without any heavy lifting or heavy spending.